CONTENT
A.Introduction
B.Theoretical expectations
C.Real world values
D.The science

INTRODUCTION

As nuclear waste remains radioactive for quite some time depending on the isotopes involved, there are further uses that have previously been neglected that may solve supersite storage problems. The first viable use is providing electricity through nuclear batteries for certain commercial markets. The second is using all types of radiation to split the intramolecular bonds in water producing H2 and O2 from water with no need for electrolysis. Hydrogen can either then be sold or utilized in hydrogen fuel cells to produce energy. Covered in this article.

RELATED: Diamond nuclear voltaics

Nuclear Voltaics:
60 year  old Beta and Alpha voltaic science is utilized in low volume application like pacemakers. Similar to a photovoltaic cell where power is derived from light, a beta voltaic cell power is derived from alpha and beta type radiation. Older applications failed economically due to reasons like low output and material deterioration. These issues are overcome by:
a) manufacturing of new material with lower costs
b) new evidence proving coulombs force deviation
c) an abundance of nuclear isotopes from breeder reactors used medically, now with power application. The synergistic combination of new evidence and new abundant materials led to a viable redistribution of nuclear supercite waste.

1.A.1 BetaVoltaic Battery Design

Beta Voltaics fusion.png

1.A.2-3

IP fusion voltaics.png
*Basic diagram of a portable nuclear battery

Theoretical values

The energy released in a typical ß-decay (Tritium as an example) is in the order of 1 eV (i.e.1.6 x 10-19J) per molecule. Most of this energy is in the form of the kinetic energy of the emitted electron. The most significant part of quantum tunneling is the deviation from coulomb’s constant.

Quantum tunneling physics.gif

  •  By HyperPhysics school aid

Essentially coulomb’s constant is averted by quantum tunneling enabling the acceptance of electrons into the quantum tunneling medium. This may seem like a very large deviation from standard physics, but if we use the model of quantum tunneling in multi walled carbon nanotubes we see that via said effect the electron can be accepted and essentially changing the charge of the quantum tunneling medium. This provides a difference in charge from the cathode and anode producing a current. Meaning use of nearly 100% of the electrons charge and partial kinetic energy. In this instance the electrons are acting as waves being absorbed by the multi walled carbon nanotubes and being expressed as a capacitive current,  a maximum theoretical energy output of 0.78W/cm3 of tritium.

HalflifeChart.png

Based on real world calculations we extrapolate the current to deteriorate at the same rate and after 4 half-lives’ is mostly depleted (49.2 years).

Real world data and application:

Energy density (W/g)
High to Low
Lifespan

(y)

Energy type Net energy density

(J/g)

Nuclear Fission (Average) 16000 n/a Nuclear Fission n/a
Cup-a-Nuke Cobalt-60(s) 15.34-25.5 5.27 β−-decay, γ-rad 4.83×108-8.04×108
Ethanol fuel(l) 20.9 Varies Chemical 20.9
Energizer Battery(s) 0.8 1000mAH Chemical 2.88
Cup-a-Nuke Tritium(g)theory 100%eff. 0.78 12.3 ß-decay 3.02×108
Cup-a-Nuke Tritium(g) 0.2-0.5 12.3 ß-decay 7.7×107-1.9×108

Real world application table noting 100% efficiency model and the Cobalt-60 is untested. Other science faculties apply this idea noting nuclear voltaics provide orders of magnitude more energy. While all designs to date rely on the momentum of electrons and quantum mechanical energy, new renditions can utilize quantum tunneling to increase efficiency by also using the electrons charge. Alpha and gamma voltaics are also in theoretical stages very close to actualization

COMMERCIALIZATION

  • Nuclear Voltaics represent the most efficient, energy dense long term low ouput energy source to date.
  • Research, medical, vehicle including Aerospace and military application
  • Nuclear voltaic output may be more efficient than paying for gas in the consumer market by using nuclear isotopes from breeder reactors using cobalt-60 for example, due to new manufacturing process where the addition of isotopes can be made extremely cheap, versus higher cost elements like plutonium and uranium
  • Provide a clean renewable safe and sustainable extra source of energy
  • Utilize nuclear waste products
  • Canada could profit from high grade safe products sales revolutionizing the market
  • Recently unimaginable applications at the forefront of innovation (to be documented)
  • By nature and abundance of needed materials this applications is meant to synergize with current nuclear reactors making use nuclear byproducts. Manufacturing would have an end goal of worldwide distribution making 5 years(half-life of cobalt-60) a good target according to the amount we can produce.

Science 101

How it works:

Electrons leave cobalt-60, entering the carbon nanotubes bouncing off of the walls over and over again and shifting the amplitude but not the mass-energy of the electron. Then the electron entering the carbon nanotube is the hard part, that is where this deviation from coulomb’s force comes in. The full electron is then “accepted” into an already balanced system, causing an imbalance in charge. Then causing the electrons to flow like water from the anode to cathode like a battery but in this instance electron hole pairs are created via a PN junction inducing a current while acting as a “one way street” for electrons.